Fewer and fewer young people, fewer and fewer graduates. Thirteen of Italy's twenty-one regions are not only in demographic decline, they are also struggling to get the remaining young people through third-level education. And it is not just the South that is struggling.
2022 was the year when Fortress Europe put on its human face. The Russian invasion of Ukraine has caused the largest refugee crisis since World War II, and xenophobic voices about the risk of destabilization of European states have suddenly been put aside.
Launched in November 2015, the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa (EUTF) was intended to promote stability and fight against “the root causes of irregular migration and displaced persons”. Five billion euros have been approved for 250 projects in 26 African countries. But what results has the fund produced?
As 2021 drew to a close, so too did the EUTF project, a “trust fund for Africa” created by the EU in order to address the causes of illegal immigration. Analysis shows that a large proportion of this funding was dedicated to border externalisation.